Badjao Swadesh Wordlist | Bajau Semporna

The following is a Badjao Swadesh Wordlist collected from a man named Gunani, living on a houseboat near the island Pulu Gaya, Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia.  Gunani is better described as a Sama Dilaut or a Sama Pala’u.  Pala’u refers to the fact that he lives on a houseboat with his family.  Gunani is somewhere between the age of 35 to 40 years old.  He was born in Semporna to parents who were also born there.  His grandparents migrated to Semporna from Tawi-Tawi.
I had been looking to collect a Swadesh wordlist from a Sama Dilaut from Malaysia.  In particular a Sama living on a houseboat.  The purpose of collecting such a list would be to examine whether the Sinama of the Badjao from Tawi-Tawi & the Badjao of Semporna should be classified as Central or Southern Sinama.  Interpretations of the Badjao Swadesh Wordlist can be found in our post: What Language do the Badjao Speak?
As I was not able to accomplish this task in my family’s short trip to Semporna in April 2012, I am grateful to anthropologist Erik Abrahamsson (website http://theaquaticape.org/) for collecting this Swadesh Wordlist for me on his trip this late  November 2012.
We have used the terms Badjao and Bajau only due to their recognition by outside observers.  Badjao referring to the Sama Dilaut as they are called by non-Sama in the Philippines.  Bajau referring to all Sama people as they are called in Malaysia.

As a disclaimer, I would like to note that some faults in the data may exist due to the usage of the Malay language to elicit words.  Also difficulty in spelling by the transcribers may have resulted in misinterpretation of certain words.
 

Badjao Swadesh Wordlist (Sinama) with English, Malay, & Tagalog Equivalents

No.SinamaEnglishMalayTagalog
1akuI

aku, saya

ako
2ka’ayou (singular)

engkau, kamu, awak, anda, saudara, saudari

ikaw, ka; kayo
3iyahe

dia / ia, nya

siya
4kita, kamiwekita, kamitayo, kami
5ka’amyou (plural)

kamu, kalian, engkau, anda, saudara-saudari

kayo
6sigāmthey

mereka

sila
7ituthis

ini

ito
8ituathat

itu

iyan, iyon
9maituhere

sini

dito
10mahē’theresitu
sana
Diyan, doon
11saiwho

siapa

sino
12aiwhat

apa

ano
13mainggawhere

mana

saan, nasaan
14sumiyanwhenbila
kapan
kailan, kelan
15buwattinggahowbagaimana
macam mana
paano
16ngga’i ka, mbalnot

tidak, bukan

hindi
17kamemonall

semua, segala

lahat
18ahekamany

banyak

marami
19dangay-dangaysome

beberapa

ilan, iilan
20akulangfew

sedikit

kaunti
21saddīother

lain

iba, otro
22dakayu’one

satu, esa

isa, uno
23duwatwo

dua

dalawa, dos
24t’lluthree

tiga, telu

tatlo, tres
25mpatfour

empat

apat, kwatro
26limafive

lima

lima, singko
27aheyabig

besar, raya

malaki
28ataha’long

panjang

mahaba
29aluhawide

lebar

malapad
30akapalthick

tebal

makapal, ispiso
31abuhatheavy

berat

mabigat
32ariki’small

kecil

maliit, munti, pandak
33areyo’short

pendek

maikli, maigsî
34asigpitnarrow

sempit

makitid
35anipisthin

nipis, tipis

manipis
36d’ndawoman

perempuan

babae
37l’llaman

lelaki

lalaki
38mandusiya’man (human being)

orang

tao
39onde’child

anak

anak, bata
40h’ndawife

isteri

asawa
41h’llahusband

suami

asawa
42nggo’mother

ibu, emak, induk, ina

ina, nanay, mama
43mma’father

bapa, ayah, rama

ama, tatay
44sattuwaanimal

binatang, haiwan

hayop
45daingfish

ikan

isda
46manukbird

burung

ibon
47ero’dog

anjing, asu, kuyuk,

aso
48kutulouse

kutu

kuto
49sowasnake

ular

ahas, sawa
50kalogworm

cacing

uod, bulati
51kayutree

pokok, pohon

puno, punung-kahoy
52talunforest

hutan, rimba

gubat
53batangstick

batang

patpat
54buwa’fruit

buah

prutas, bungang-kahoy, bunga
55bajabseed

benih

binhi
56daunleaf

daun

dahon
57ulagatcroot

akar

ugat
58kulit kayubark (tree)

kulit kayu

balat, bakbák
59bungadflower

bunga

bulaklak, suchil
60paranggrass

rumput

damo
61k’llatrope

tali

lubid, tali
62kulitskin

kulit

balat
63isimeat

daging

karne, laman, lamang loob
64laha’blood

darah

dugo
65to’olangbone

tulang

buto
66al’mmokefat (noun)

lemak

taba
67nt’lloegg

telur

itlog
68tandukhorn

tanduk

sungay
69togeltail

ekor

buntot
70buluffeather

bulu

balahibo
71bu’unhair

rambut (head-hair)

buhok
72kōkhead

kepala, hulu

ulo, kabesa
73talingaear

telinga

tenga, tainga
74mataeye

mata

mata
75ūngnose

hidung

ilong
76bowa’mouth

mulut

bibig
77empontooth

gigi

ngipin
78d’lla’tongue

lidah

dila
79kukkufingernail

kuku

kuko
80tape’foot

kaki

paa
81pa’aleg

kaki

binti
82kōk-tu’utkneelutut, tuhut (Brunei)tuhod
83tanganhand

tangan

kamay
84kepetwing

sayap, kepak

pakpak
85b’ttongbelly

perut

tiyan
86ususgguts

usus

bituka, laman-loob
87k’llongneck

leher

leeg
88bukut, kalompangback

punggung, belakang

likod, likuran
89jantunghbreast

payudara, titik

suso, dibdíb
90atayiheart

jantung

puso
91tina’ijliver

hati

atay, igado
92anginumto drink

minum

uminom, inumin
93amanganto eat

makan

kumain, kainin, lumamon, lamunin
94kineketto bite

gigit

kumagát, kagatin
95ssakto suck

hisap

sumipsip, sipsipin
96ludja’to spit

ludah

dumura
97angutta’to vomit

muntah

sumuka
98tiyupto blow

tiup

umihip, gulpi
99magnapasto breathe

nafas, hirup

huminga
100atittowato laugh

ketawa

tumawa
101ang’nda’to see

lihat, tengok

makita
102pakalehinto hear

dengar

Márinig, dinggin
103tahatikulto know

tahu

umalam, alamin, malaman
104pikilto think

fikir

mag-isip, isipin
105ūng, siniyummto smell

bau, cium, hidu

amuyin
106atāwto fear

takut

takot, matakot
107atulito sleep

tidur

matulog
108allumto live

hidup

mabuhay
109amatayto die

mati, meninggal, mangkat (royal term)

mamatay, pumanaw, mapaslang
110binono’to kill

bunuh

pumatay, patayin, pumaslang
111magatuto fight

lawan

lumaban
112(no response)to hunt

buru

mangaso
113kinakalto hit

pukul

tamaan, tumbukin
114pinōngto cut

potong

putulin, hiwain
115binahagi’to split

belah

magbiyak, biyakin
116nirugsu’anto stab

tikam

manaksak, saksakin
117magbono’ nto scratch

garu

kamutin
118angalutto dig

gali, korek

maghukay, hukayin
119lumangito swim

renang

lumangoy, languyin
120lumeyangto fly

terbang

lumipad, liparin
121magl’ngnganto walk

jalan

maglakad, lumakad
122at’kkato come

datang

dumating, datingan/datnan
123palegeto lie (as in a bed)

baring

humiga
124aningkō’to sit

duduk

umupo
125an’nggeto stand

diri

tumayo
126pabalitooto turn

belok, pusing, putar

lumiko, bumilíng
127alabu’pto fall

jatuh

bumagsak
128nde’in, pamuwanto give

beri, bagi

magbigay, ibigay
129amalutto hold

pegang

humawak, hawakan, tanganan, tangnán
130anaksuyqto squeeze

perah

pisilin, pigas
131kinusu-kusuto rub

gosok

magkuskos, kuskusin
132angose’to wash

cuci

maghugas, hugasan
133saputo wipe

lap

magpunas, punasan
134hella’to pull

tarik

bumatak, batakin, humila, hilahin
135ijujalanrto push

tolak

magtulak, itulak
136tinimananto throw

baling, campak, lempar, lontar

maghagis, ihagis
137engkotto tie

ikat

magtali, itali
138angala’itto sew

jahit

tahiin
139itungto count

kira, hitung, bilang

bumilang
140ah’lling, angistorito say

kata, cakap, tutur

sabihin
141angongka’to sing

nyanyi

umawit, awitin
142angongka’to play

main

maglaro, laruin
143palantun-lantunto float

apung

lumutang
144(no response)to flow

alur, alir, salur, salir

umagos, iagos
145amatuwasto freeze

beku

maging yelo, mabuô manigas
146am’ngkongto swell

bengkak

mamaga
147mata-llawsun

matahari

araw
148bulanmoon

bulan, cendera

buwan
149mamahistar

bintang

bituin
150bohe’water

air

tubig
151ulanrain

hujan

ulan
152sowangriver

sungai, batang

ilog
153danawlake

tasik, danau,

lawa
154dilautssea

laut

dagat
155asinsalt

garam

asin
156batustone

batu

bato
157gusungsand

pasir

buhangin
158baliyu agabutdust

habuk

alikabok
159tana’earth

tanah

lupa
160ma tonga’an, tai’-baliyucloud

awan

ulap
161kabusufog

kabus

ulap na hamog
162ma tonga’ansky

langit

langit, kalangitan
163baliyuwind

angin

hangin
164saljivsnow

salji

niyebe
165aesice

air batu, air beku, ais

yelo
166humbusmoke

asap

aso, usok
167apifire

api

apoy
168abuash

abu

abo
169tinunu’to burn

bakar

magsunog, masunog, sunugin
170lānroad

jalan

daan, kalsada, lansangan
171būdmountain

gunung

bundok
172keyatred

merah

pula
173gaddunggreen

hijau

lunti(an), berde
174baningwyellow

kuning

dilaw
175pote’white

putih

puti
176ettomblack

hitam

itim
177sangomnight

malam

gabi
178llawdaysiang, hariaraw
179tahunyear

tahun

taon
180apasu’warm

panas, hangat

Mainit, maligamgám
181t’nnecold

sejuk

malamig, magináw
182ap’nno’full

penuh

puno
183baha’unew

baharu

bago
184ato’a, ma’asold

lama, tua (life-age)

luma, matanda
185ahāpgood

baik, bagus

mabuti
186busuk, abuhukbad

buruk, teruk

masama, maldito/a
187abuhukrotten

busuk

bulok, panis
188al’mmisdirty

kotor, kumuh

marumi
189abontol, atiludstraight

lurus

tuwid
190palikongxround

bulat

bilog
191atalomsharp

tajam

matalim
192atompoldull

tumpul

pudpod, mapuról
193(changed) angalu’udysmooth

licin

makinis
194abase’wet

basah

basa
195atoho’dry

kering

tuyo
196b’nnalcorrect

betul

tama, tumpak
197asekotnear

dekat, hampir

malapit
198atāfar

jauh

malayo
199kowanright

kanan

kanan
200gibangleft

kiri

kaliwa
201maat

di

sa
202mareyomin

di dalam

sa
203makawith

dengan

kasama
204makaand

dan, serta

at
205bangif

kalau, jikalau, jika

kung
206pasalbecause

kerana, sebab

dahil, sapagkat, kasi
207ōnname

nama

(pa)ngalan

Footnotes concerning possible issues with the Swadesh Wordlist

If you are a Sama speaker from Sabah, Tawi-Tawi, Sulu or Zamboanga, we would appreciate your feedback on the concerns that we have listed below with the Badjao Swadesh Wordlist.
a This appears to be a mistake in word elicitation derived from the Malay word itu meaning that. In Sinama the word would most likely be either inān, ina’an, or ilu.

b We do not recognize the word baja. It could also be baya. The transcriber used “j” for the “y” sound one other time in the wordlist.
c This might be a dialect difference or an issue with word elicitation using the Malay language. Gamut seems like a better choice unless there is a dialect difference. The word ugat can also mean root in Sinama. Sama Dilaut would possibly have it rendered as ulagat.
d Bunga is the Malay for flower. Most likely this is an error in elicitation where the Sama assumed that bunga meant fruit. Another possibility is that the Sama in Semporna have started borrowing the Malay word for flower, bunga. We would expect this word to be sumping.
e Al’mmok is the adjective for a fat person. We would expect this word to be l’mmok or taba‘.
f Bulu is certainly the Malay for feathers. We are more familiar with the term , which is a contraction of bulu. Sama Dilaut have a tendency of not contracting words that other Central Sama contract.
g This appears to be a mistake in word elicitation derived from the Malay word usus meaning guts. In Sinama the word would most likely be either tina’i or longon-longon.
h The words for breast, heart and liver seem to be confused here. Most likely the Sama word for breast would be duru’ or daggaha’. Heart should be jantung and liver should be atay. The word tina’i fits better the description of guts.
i The words heart and liver are readily confused in various Austronesian languages due to the difference between these words anatomically and as they are used to describe emotion. In the past atay anatomically would be the liver, but is also the seat of emotion or from where Sama speakers think of feelings coming from.
j (see footnotes h & i)
k We do not recognize the word ssa in this sense. We would expect this word to be an’ssop from the root s’ssop.
l Maybe better rendered as kata’uwanku instead of tahatiku. The difference is between knowing and understanding.
m This appears to be a mistake in word elicitation. Ūng is the Sama word for nose. Siyum is the Sama word for kissing. Sama kissing involves smelling as opposed to contact with an individuals lips. We would expect nihamut to be the appropriate term here.
n This appears to be a mistake in elicitation. We would expect this to be magkatol, magkaskas, or magkamas.
o Pabalito: Unrecognized word.
p Alabu’:
q Anaksuy: Unrecognized word.
r The prefix i- as found in ijujalan is unfamiliar. Most likely it is a mistake in transcription. More likely the word should be nijujalan.
s Dilaut means deep sea. It is very possible that eliciting this word list using the Malay language influenced this answer. Tahik would be a more generic term.
t Baliyu agabu seems to be better rendered as baliyu angabu. This may have been a transcription error.
u Kabus is the Malay word for fog. We do not recognize it. It may very likely be used by Sama from Malaysia as a borrowed word.
v Salji is the Malay word for snow. We do not recognize it. It may very likely be used by Sama from Malaysia as a borrowed word.
w Baning was not found in Kemp Pallesen’s Central Sinama Dictionary.  It is recognized as a dialect variant of the word biyaning.
x Palikong: Unrecognized word.
y Angalu’ud: This word was transcribed angalaud We assume this as a transcription error and corrected it to angalu’ud a Central Sinama word meaning slippery in connection to something being smooth.
The original Malay Swadesh wordlist used for eliciting the Badjao Swadesh Wordlist can be found at: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Malay_Swadesh_list

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